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Facts About Glutathione and Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's Disease (PD), a devastating illness, occurs in one of every 100 people over 65.

It is a slowly progressing disease of the nervous system that results in progressive destruction of brain cells (neurons) in an area of the brain called the substantia nigra. Death occurs usually as a result of secondary complications such as infection.

One of the mechanisms known to destroy neurons is damage by free radicals or reactive oxygen species - destructive molecules produced by oxidation of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

The Role of Dopamine

The cells of the substantia nigra use dopamine - a chemical messenger between brain or nerve cells - to communicate with cells in another region of the brain called the striatum.

When nigral cells are lost, nigral dopamine levels fall, resulting in a decrease in striatal dopamine.

The typical symptoms of PD - motor function deficiencies characterized by muscle rigidity, jerky movements, rhythmic resting tremors - are the result of low levels of striatal dopamine.

Most dopaminergic drugs used to treat PD, are aimed at temporarily replenishing or mimicking dopamine. They improve some symptoms, but do not restore normal brain function nor halt brain cell destruction.

Dopaminergic drugs are generally effective at first in reducing many PD symptoms, but over time they lose their effect.

They also cause severe side effects because they overstimulate nerve cells elsewhere in the body and cause confusion, hallucinations, nausea and fluctuations in the movement of limbs.

The Role of Antioxidants

When dopaminergic neurons are lost in the course of Parkinson's disease, the metabolism of dopamine is increased - which in turn increases the formation of highly neurotoxic hydroxyl radicals.

The most important free radical scavenger in the cells of the substantia nigra is the powerful brain antioxidant, glutathione. Glutathione levels in PD patients are low.

And as we age, levels of glutathione in the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra decreases. This appears to hasten cell death and advance the progression of PD.

At least 80 percent of the substantia nigra cells are lost before symptoms of Parkinson's disease become apparent. This is why it becomes essential to protect or maintain these cells under oxidative stress.

How does Glutathione help in Parkinson's Disease?

Several factors explain why glutathione is so beneficial in Parkinson's disease.

1. Glutathione increases the sensitivity of the brain to dopamine. So although glutathione doesn't raise dopamine levels, it allows the dopamine in the brain to be more effective.

2. Glutathione's powerful antioxidant activity protects the brain from free radical damage.

3. An even more intriguing benefit of glutathione lies in its powerful detoxification ability.

Its a well known fact that most Parkinson's patients are deficient in their ability to detoxify chemicals to which they are exposed.

The unfortunate few who harbor an inherited flaw in their detoxification pathways are at far greater risk to the brain damaging effects of a wide variety of toxins.

Glutathione is one of the most important components of the liver's detoxification system. Glutathione therapy is one of the most effective techniques for enhancing liver and brain detoxification.

Glutathione treatments considerably improve some of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease including difficulties with rigidity, walking, movement, coordination and speech. A marked reduction of tremor has been observed as well as a decrease in depression.

Glutathione and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (a glutathione precursor) have been shown to be very effective in protecting the nerves in the substantia nigra from being destroyed by oxidative stress.

Glutathione Therapy in Parkinson's Disease

The practical problem in increasing glutathione levels is that taking glutathione itself as a supplement does not boost cellular glutathione levels, since glutathione breaks down in the digestive tract before it reaches the cells.

However, intravenous glutathione therapy and taking glutathione precursors are both effective in boosting intracellular levels of glutathione.

Intravenous Glutathione Therapy:

Intravenous glutathione injections have been shown to have amazing and quick results.

Dr. David Perlmutter, a pioneer in this therapy, has developed a protocol utilized at the Perlmutter Health Center for administering intravenous glutathione to Parkinson's patients.

Following even a single dosage of intravenous glutathione - often in as little as 15 minutes - the ability to walk, turn around and move their arms is almost completely restored.

Glutathione Precursors:

Dietary antioxidants and supplements that increase cellular glutathione, such as alpha lipoic acid, NAC, pycnogenol, the herb silymarin (milk thistle), are effective in restoring normal function.

N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and un-denatured, whey protein both supply glutathione precursors intracellularly, enhance the body's production of glutathione and aid the detoxification process.

Other nutritional supplements which aid the detoxification process include selenium, vitamins E and C.

Facts About Fishing Gear

In fishing, it is very important to an angler's success that he starts with the proper equipment. He may purchase or own the finest equipment in the world, but when it is assembled and put into use, it may prove to be a very decided handicap.

To guard against this, it is important that the individual items of tackle be properly balanced one with the other. Unbalanced equipment has been responsible for more difficulties and failures of beginners than any other single factor.

Fishing Rod

To fish with a good rod is to really enjoy fishing. It is much easier to learn with a good rod than with one of an inferior quality. This is no commercial plug to encourage the sale of expensive rods, but just a word of warning to prevent any possible or unnecessary discouragement because of using a rod that would be decided handicap to a competent caster.

Fishing Lines

This item of fishing gear must be selected with some careful considerations if anglers are expecting to enjoy fishing or casting.

This is because the size and weight of fishing lines made by various manufacturers are not entirely uniform, that is, the diameter of the line by one manufacturer may be slightly larger or smaller than a line by another manufacturer even though both bear the same size marking.

The Leader

The leader is also a very important item, and unless it is selected with care and consideration in comparison with the size of the line, the caster will have trouble in making it extend straight out from the line when casting.

The chief function of the leader is to serve as an invisible connection between the line and the lure.

Fishing Flies or Lures

The flies may range in size, from the tiniest used, which might be number 18 or 20, up to flies tied on number-2 hooks or larger. The heavier flies or lures create; more wind is needed. It also requires the use of heavier equipment or more power on the part of the caster during the back cast and forward cast.


The reel may be automatic or single action, but in any event, it should be larger enough to hold the usual 30 yards of fishing line without crowding it on the reel spool.

The reel should weigh from 1 ¼ to 1 ½ as much as the bare rod. The reel itself is of no specific use in casting or fishing except as a storage place for the line.

Consequently, the entire equipment should always be in good condition. Other wise, achieving success in fishing is impossible.

Horse Training Facts And Maxims

To the uninitiated horse owner, there are timely facts about horses they should know. In fact, when someone first gets a horse these timely facts should be studied and learned.

These timely facts come from the Jesse Beery horse training manual. Jesse Beery was a famous horse trainer from the 1800's. Interestingly, Beery's training methods are as powerful today as they were when Beery was alive.

Timely Fact #1:

Make your horse your friend, not your slave.

Timely Fact #2:

Almost every wrong act of the horse is caused by fear, excitement or mismanagement. One harsh word will increase the pulse of a nervous horse ten beats a minute. Hoses know nothing about balking until forced into it by bad management. Any balky horse an be started steady and true in a few minutes. I never found one that I could not teach to start his load in fifteen minutes and usually in three.

Timely Fact #3:

Intelligent horsemen have learned that kickers, biters and balkers are natural results of abuse, that not one horse in a hundred is vicious until made so by cruelty; that whipping a horse is as mean and senseless as whipping a baby, and that the most useful, obedient and long lived horses are those treated from birth with kindness and common sense.

Timely Fact #4:

The whip is the parent of stubborness, but gentleness wins obedience. There is no such thing as balkiness in a horse that is kindly treated, and that gets an occasional apple, potato or sugar from his master's hand.

Timely Fact #5:

When a hose is afraid or excited, quiet him by kind words and caress. An excited horse is practically crazy and to whip him is dangerous, foolish and cruel. I have known a single blow of the whip to balk a spirited horse. Whipping a balky horse is barbarous and only increases balkiness.

American Bulldog Facts

Descended from the English Bulldog, the American Bulldog was nearly extinct after World War II. Thanks to the efforts of John D. Summerville, this breed has returned from the edge of extinction and flourished in America. This working dog has been described as fiercely loyal, an excellent hunter, and wonderful family pet. In fact, some American Bulldogs are known for their extraordinary acts of bravery and courage when defending their masters.

There are two types of American Bulldog: Classic (also known as Johnson or Bully) and Standard (also known as Scott or Performance); however, many of today's American Bulldogs tend to be a combination of both. Standards tend to be shorter and stockier, causing them to sometimes be mistaken for their cousin the Pit Bull, but otherwise Classic and Standard American Bulldogs look similar to one another. American Bulldogs are primarily white though some may have patches of brindle or red. Their coats are short and wiry, feeling bristly and rough to the touch. American Bulldogs require relatively little maintenance thanks to this short coat, and only need the occasional bath and regular brushing with a stiff bristle brush. Their strong jaws give their heads a boxy and strong-looking appearance.

Male American Bulldogs will reach an average height of 22 to 27 inches and average weight of 75 to 125 pounds. Females will reach average heights of 20 to 25 inches and weights of 60 to 100 pounds. American Bulldogs will live, on average, 16 years. English Bulldogs were bred as working dogs that helped herd cattle and the American Bulldog retains some of these characteristics, particularly the strong jaw and equally strong personality. Though American Bulldogs are known as fierce protectors of their properties and masters (making them excellent guard and watch dogs), they are very gentle and good with both children and other family pets.

However, an American Bulldog is sometimes unaware of its own strength and for this reason, children should always be closely supervised when playing with this breed. In general, American Bulldogs can be difficult to train, as they are stubborn, but once consistently trained, will obey. American Bulldogs are suited for apartment life, as they tend to be relatively inactive indoors. However, they should be exercised at least once a day. Some American Bulldogs are prone to hip displaysia, but otherwise, are a healthy breed of dog.

Auto Repair Insurance: Extended Warranties: Myths And Facts

How much insurance does one need? You have the big four: home, health, life, and car insurance. Then there's a second category, which starts getting a little hazy with credit card insurance, purchase protection plans, fraud insurance and more. Extended warranties, also called extended service contracts, or extended service policies fall into the mist of this second category.

Extended warranties are supposed to pay (in full or in part) for specified repairs for a specific period of time after the expiration of the factory warranty. They can be a great value. They can also be a significant waste of money. It gets quite foggy in the details. What exactly is covered? How long? How much? Are there hidden charges?

There are numerous extended warranty companies and an even wider variety of warranty packages available: silver, gold, platinum, platinum-plus, and a host of other confidence-building words. What's the best plan, and are extended service contracts worth the money? Extended warranties, like life insurance policies, are a numbers game. They're a gamble. You pay $2500-$4500 for a 2 year, 100,000-mile protection plan and hope that you get at least that back in warranty repairs. The provider on the other hand, hopes to pay out less than it insured.

There are three major types of plan providers: The manufacturer, the dealership/third party, and third party providers. Each one has its assets and liabilities (discussed ahead).

What exactly is covered in an extended service plan? As mentioned above, what's covered depends on the package purchased. Some plans only cover the power train: the mechanical components of the engine, transmission, and rear-end. Others cover the power train plus some electrical components. Still others cover electrical, advanced electrical, and computer components. Some only cover what's listed in the contract. This is called a "Stated" or "Named" contract. This means that if it's not stated, it's not covered. Some cover bumper-to-bumper, similar to a manufacturer warranty, except trim pieces, upholstery, exterior components, cosmetic items, and a number of other exclusions.

Never before has the adage, "The devil's in the details," been so applicable.

Manufacturer Extended Plans:
Extended service plans from the manufacturer are the best in terms of coverage, convenience, and quality. Coverage is similar to the warranty while the vehicle was under its original factory warranty—with similar exclusions stated above. The billing is direct, meaning you don't have to pay out-of-pocket, except for a deductible, if applicable. Quality is great too, as an extended warranty from the manufacturer will only use factory parts. They also have money, so there's less risk of bankruptcy.

The down side of manufacturer extended service plans is that they are not cheap. These plans are generally the most expensive, require low mileage standards, and necessitate servicing your vehicle at a dealer for coverage.

Dealership/Third Party Plans:
Extended warranties from a dealership are actually from a third party insurer. These providers are "generally" reputable, but not always. However, if there is an issue (such as the warranty provider filing chapter 11, which is quite frequent in the extended service contract business), the dealer "may" step in to cover any repairs that would have been covered under the defunct plan. Also, claims are easier: billing is direct because the dealership has a working relationship with the provider, and there is usually agreement on price.

Some dealers set up their own "internal extended warranty," which is honored by the selling dealer. This is rare, and should not be confused with a manufacturer warranty. Important: extended warranties are often passed off as "manufacturer" warranties. They're not. This is a sales trick. Also be aware that there is a significant mark up, as the dealership is merely acting as the middle man. Lastly, extended warranty companies often go bankrupt without warning.

Third Party Plans:
These plans are called third party plans because they are outside the responsibility of the manufacturer and the service center performing the repairs (unless there's a working relationship with a repair shop as stated above).

There are hundreds of extended service contract companies. Some have good reputations, some don't. Third party plans are frequently sold by used car dealers. You may also receive an official looking notification in the mail stating that your warranty is expiring, and directing you to call an 800 number ASAP. This is a marketing tactic by an independent warranty provider. Despite the "official" appearance of the postcard or envelope, it's not from the manufacturer. Manufacturers do not send out reminders about warranty expirations.

Given the wide-variety of third party plans there are numerous red flags.

1) Claims: Extended warranty companies will be quick to tell you that filing claims is easy, and that the service center gets paid immediately via a credit card. Thus, there's no out-of-pocket expense for you. However, the warranty company can't dictate a service center's policies. Some service centers will only accept payment from the repair customer. Thus the burden is on the repair customer to fill out the forms, contact their warranty company, and await reimbursement via check, which can take 2-8 weeks.

It is the service center's responsibility to contact the extended warranty company to let them know what's wrong with the vehicle and to check coverage. This process can take anywhere from 20 minutes to 20 days, sometimes more, depending on the degree of repairs and especially the amount. (See $1000 and Adjusters ahead)

Service centers and extended warranty companies frequently battle over the "fair" price of repairs. Many repair shops no longer negotiate, and just state the price, leaving the contract holder (i.e., the service customer) responsible for the difference.

2) Rentals: Rental coverage is a great benefit. However, there are fixed rates and time limits. In other words, the warranty company is not going to pay to have you drive a Mercedes-Benz, even if you drive a Benz. Rental allowances range from $25 to $35 per day. Also, rental coverage is based on the number of hours it takes to repair the vehicle, NOT how long your car has been at the shop.

3) $1000 and Adjusters: Repairs that approach $1000, or that require a significant amount of work, will be cause for the warranty company to call in an adjuster to confirm the diagnosis. This will delay the repairs by a minimum of 24-48 hours. It may cost you additional money when an adjuster is involved. You may be charged to have your vehicle pulled back into the shop for inspection, as well as for the time spent with the adjuster.

4) Tear-down Charges: In many cases, an extended warranty company will require that a particular component be taken apart for inspection to determine if the repair is indeed needed and covered. This puts the service customer in a very awkward position. The customer will have to authorize potentially hundreds of dollars of tear-down expense in the hopes that the repair is covered. If it's not, the customer is out the hundreds in tear-down PLUS the actual repair. This does happen!

Common Myths:

1) "Extended warranties cover maintenance services and brake work."

No. Extended warranty plans do not cover maintenance or wearable items. Brake pads and rotors are wearable parts. Maintenance such as coolant, brake and transmission flushes, tune-ups, services, oil changes, bulbs, wipers, and more are not covered.

2) "They told me it's bumper-to-bumper, so it covers everything right?"

Wrong. Not even a factory warranty covers everything. When pitching the sale for the extended warranty, one is very often lead to believe that he or she will have nothing to worry about. This is just not true on so many levels. For example, if your bumper falls off it's not covered.

3) "I don't have to pay anything, right?"

Wrong. Despite the claims of 100% coverage, there are many factors involved. The labor rates, labor hours, diagnostic times, parts prices, and machine work are just a few items that often conflict with a service center's policies. Some extended contracts only pay a maximum of $55 per hour, and only allow one half hour for diagnostic time. This is generally unacceptable to the service center, as labor rates have skyrocketed to over $100 per hour at many dealerships, and average $75 at local shops. Moreover, with the complexity of today's vehicles, diagnostic time is at a premium. The customer pays the difference.

4) "If I have an expensive problem, I can just purchase an extended service contract."

It's unethical, but it's an option many attempt. However, most service contracts have a minimum time requirement before the first claim can be filed: usually three months. Also, many contracts require that your vehicle be inspected by a service center to check for pre-existing conditions—just like life insurance.

5) "My contract lasts up to 100,000 miles."

Only if the time limit doesn't run out first. All extended warranty plans have a time limit. For example, a typical contract will state that the vehicle is covered for two years or 100,000 miles, which ever comes first. During the sales pitch, however, the emphasis will be on the 100,000 miles, not the time.

6) "If my car breaks, it gets fixed like new."
Actually, depending on the contract, an extended warranty company can insist on installing remanufactured or even used parts.

Items commonly not covered by extended warranties:
• Any component with a pre-existing condition
• Any component related to a Technical Service Bulletin (TSB)
• Many components that has been updated by the manufacturer
• Extra components necessary "due to manufacturer updates" to complete the repair
• Trim pieces: molding, cup holders, dashboard, console, body parts, glass
• Many accessories: radios, DVD players, TVs
• Many expensive electronics: climate control units, navigation assemblies

Service contract positives:
Some service contracts are transferable, and may thus increase the resale value of a vehicle. Many come with trip interruption reimbursement, towing and 24-hour road side. Some plans can also be financed, or have E-Z Pay Plans. Others offer a money-back guarantee.

What should you do?
You'll get lots of advice about doing the research, comparing plans, and reading the fine print. This is all sound advice. But what about doing the math?

Let's say a plan costs $2500 for 2 years or 100,000 miles, whichever comes first. To break even you'll need a minimum of $1250 per year in covered repairs, excluding regular maintenance. Remember covered is the vital word here.

Another way to break it down is to anticipate having to pay $104.17 per month over the next two years in "covered" repairs. Do you want to take that bet?

What could happen?
You could double your money or more in repair work. You could conceivably get a new engine and transmission (or used ones anyway). You could also easily spend $2500 for a service contract, and still have to pay another $2500 for repairs, which for a variety of reasons, were not covered under your plan. Now you're out $5000.

Alternatively, you could keep the initial $2500. In many ways all an extended warranty does is prepay for repairs. You could stick the money in the bank and collect interest. Then you could withdraw the money for repairs as needed.

Another consideration that's rarely discussed is the cause of the problems. Many car repairs problems are the result of wear and tear, neglected maintenance, physical damage, or acts of God—such as flood damage. None of this is covered. The gamble only covers failed components.

If the vehicle you're driving does cost $2500 to $4500 in repairs due to outright failed components, is it a vehicle you even want to consider keeping? A vehicle that needs this kind of repair work due to mechanical, electrical, or computer failures may not be worth it. The $2500-$4500 would be better spent on an upgrade to a quality vehicle rather than insuring a lemon.

There's no question that auto repair is expensive, and even quality cars break from time to time. But do they breakdown to the tune of $2500-$4500? That's a hefty bet on a "possibility."

Terence O'Hara from the Washington Post makes an excellent assessment about extended warranties in general. He writes:

…extended warranties play upon a basic human trait to avoid loss, even if it means sacrificing a possible future gain…the gain is all the other things of value that a consumer could buy with the money that was spent on a warranty

What's the best plan?
Money in your bank account!

Fun Trivia on Postcards

You would be surprised at how small you would know about a certain thing, whether it is a postcard printing product or any other publicity material.

Even postcards have its more obscure side which is rarely known to the general public, and for a commonly used commercial printing product, there is surprisingly very little random facts and trivia to be found out about postcards. Usually, with postcard printing, business card printing, flyer printing, and every other printing service you can think of, the lesser known but interesting facts are those that are involved with the history or the general nature of the product itself. And this is true as well for those cheap postcards you send when you are on your vacation or receive whenever a company feels like promoting new products and giving you discounts. Let us look at some of them

The first illustrated post card was probably a joke. As discussed in different sources, postcards have already been in existence for a long time, even back when post and mail was just a budding trade. Thus, it is not hard to imagine how people used to communicate then over long distance, using cards printed with text and short messages. As for the very first illustrated card, it was most likely an inside joke perpetrated by an Englishman using a card hand-painted with a caricature of workers in the post office. Hardly the most elegant of firsts, but nonetheless an interesting pioneer for illustrated postcard mailing.

Postcards/postal cards. The general form and spelling of these two word may seem the same, but they will be nothing more than two closely related pieces of commercial printing product. That is because a postcard is fundamentally different than a postal card due to a single definitive reason which has something to do with the stamps needed. Generally a postcard would require a person to still purchase some stamps in order for them to be mailed, while a postal card comes with the stamps already printed onto its surface, which is why postal cards are usually received from the proper postal authorities.

Deltiology. Just as with anything in this world, whether perfectly normal or mundane, there is a study involved completely with postcards and their collection. Because postcards can come in such an extensive variety of different topics and genre, deltiologists are also varied in the same way. There are those who prefer to collect all things regarding postcards in general, while there are also some who collect postcards merely for their content, that is, the fact that they are postcards is irrelevant. At first you may think that such a venture cannot possibly be very popular, but you would be very much mistaken because Deltiology is said to be third in popularity, next only to stamp collecting and coin collecting.

You would be surprised at how little you would know about a certain thing, whether it is a postcard printing product or any other publicity material. Cheap postcards have been around for a very long time now, and have grown and developed in many different ways, so it is really not surprising if now and again you learn something completely new regarding postcards and their uses.

Bad Credit Credit Cards - Simple Facts

Bad credit credit cards are certainly not going to have the best interest or fees, but this type of credit card might be the only option available if you have had past credit problems. The interest rates on credit cards for bad credit are usually much higher than on cards designed for good credit.

These types of programs are especially designed for people that have a poor financial history and do not qualify for a regular card. If you are a young consumer just starting to build credit, or if you have had delinquencies that have damaged your credit history, you probably can still qualify for credit cards that are geared to your situation.

Bad Credit Programs

Credit card programs for bad credit are available online with secure applications, First Premier Bank and Orchard Bank are two of the most popular. These programs are often divided into "secured" cards that do need a deposit and sometimes "unsecured" credit cards are available, an unsecured bad credit credit card probably will come with much higher interest rates, sometimes 15 to 30 percent and much higher participation fees.

This type of bad credit offer gives people with a poor credit score or no history a way to acquire credit or establish a financial history. If you keep your balance under the allowed limit and make your monthly payments on time, you may become eligible for much lower interest rates and fees. This just might improve your credit score.


There are can be many temptations by having a credit card and if your using credit to hold you over in tight times, remember it's only a temporary relief as the interest on bad credit credit cards is extremely high. Shop around and to find the best deal, with an interest rate that you're sure you will be able to pay. Probably the single most important factor of picking this type of card is the interest rates charged, especially for consumers who will be rolling over their balances from month to month.


The consumer must always keep in mind that credit cards designed for bad credit are extremely easy to use, so do not go over-board or you might find yourself in a worse situation with your credit standing. Check out the interest rates and participation fees before you start filling out applications. Remember don't apply for every offer there is as this will also effect your FICO score, only choose two of the best deals you can find.